HOW SHOULD MATHEMATICS BE TAUGHT?
Fatmawati A. Atiby, S.Si, M.Ed
The most important in teaching mathematics that must have by teachers is how to teach mathematics according to curriculum and how to connect curriculum materials and classroom instruction. Strengthening mathematics teaching and learning is not just about getting strong standards-based curriculum material into classroom. Teachers have to prepare how to use curriculum material thoughtfully and well as a tool to support student learning. They should be able to focus on important mathematical ideas, articulating a rational for why each of these ideas are important, and developing writing prompts that might be used to address these mathematical ideas in the context of their instructions.
The instructions involve debating what may be expected in a strong student response, analysing particular sample of student responses with an eye to what these samples suggested about student understanding, and considering any implications for their ongoing instructions.
To achieve these goals, teacher should prepare lesson study with collaboration and cooperation among a group of teachers. Lesson study consists of preparation, actual class, and class review. Preparation is process of transforming a planned curriculum, such as that found in National Course or textbook, into a curriculum that can be implemented in the classroom. The process begins with problem identification, class planning and reconsideration of class. Actual class is implementing lesson plan that have been prepared in the actual classroom as well as based on reconsideration. Lastly, class review that is review session where a group of teacher, discuss, and evaluation of results on actual teaching of one teacher.
Furthermore, the teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students promotes mathematical thinking. They must also ensure their student achievement expectations are reasonable.
According to the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1989, teaching mathematics that promotes serious mathematical thinking takes time as well as intellectual courage. A learning environment that supports problem solving must allow students time to puzzle, to be stuck, to try alternatives and to confer with one another. Students’ learning of mathematics is enhanced in a learning environment that is built as a community of people collaborating to make sense of mathematical ideas.
Therefore, teachers must focus on what happens in effective classrooms and what makes these classrooms effective. In order to describe settings that enable pupils to learn, teacher are encouraged to understand how student learn and focus four aspects of teaching, for instance; The kinds of task in which students are engaged, the kinds of discourse present in classrooms, the environment for learning, and the analysis of instruction – keeping track of progress in achieving mathematical and scientific literacy.
To create the effectiveness teaching in mathematics classroom, teachers are encouraged to apply constructivist method. There are four guiding principles to constructivist teaching: posing problems of emerging relevance to students, structuring concepts from whole to part, valuing students’ points of view and addressing students’ suppositions, and assessing student learning in context.
The implementation of constructivist method in the mathematics classroom can range from simply adjusting way certain concepts that are taught to implementing entire programs entirely based around constructivist learning. Means that students are not simply memorizing rules in addition or subtraction, but rather, they are able to visualize the concept of addition and subtraction since they can picture pulling pebbles from a bag and replacing them.
Creating good environment in learning also considered to be the best approach in teaching and learning mathematics. In addition, effective classroom management maximize students’ learning opportunities. Classroom management must be oriented students toward activeness with flexible rules that encouraged student’ engagement in active learning, higher order thinking, and social construction of knowledge. Moreover, in the current learner-centred trend in classroom management, the teacher is more of guide, coordinator and facilitator.
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