Well, it has been commonly known that previously in the Roman calendar consisted only 10 months (304 days), namely;
Martius(the god of war) : 31 days
Aprilis(the goddess Love and beauty) : 30 days
Maius (The goddess of spring) : 31 days
Junius (the goddess of the Roman Pantheon) : 30 days
Quintilis (Latin spell of ‘five’) : 31 days
Sextilius (Latin spell of ‘six’) : 30 days
September (Latin spell of ‘seven’) : 30 days
October (Latin spell of ‘eight’) : 31 days
November (Latin spell of ‘nine’) : 30 days
December (Latin Spell of ‘ten’) : 30 days
Around 713 BC, King Numa Pompilius from Rome added the month on January (god of doors and gates), 29 days and February (Roman festival of purification), 28 days, and moved the beginning of the year from March to January. In addition, he also changed the number of days in several months to be odd, a lucky number. (This what the king is all about -_-!). After February, there was occasionally an additional month of Intercalaris “intercalendar”. This is the origin of the leap-year day being in February.
During the Julius Caesar Empire, the Roman calendar also reformed in 46 BC. In the process, he renamed Quintilis after himself (Julius), the name of the king after the god and goddess (I am the King who has the power after the God…! hehe).
In the present days, the calendar was originated from Gregorian calendar that sets January 1 as the New Year because it is the eight day after the Nativity, the day when Jesus Christ was circumcised, (off course this story remains trivial for us as Muslim). This calendar marks years before and after the birth of Christ. The years before his birth are counted as BC (Before Christ) and the years after as AD (Anno Domini, means in the year of our Lord). (I presume even the Christians do not know when exactly Jesus was born).
The calendar was established by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582 based on a solar year system which has 12 months that typically last 365 days. To complete a trip around the sun, it takes extra 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 second. Therefore, February 29, is added every 4 years. However, mathematically, the calendar doesn’t quite mesh with the solar year. Consequently, the pope added two rules to compensate. First, century years are leap years only when they are divisible by 400 (e.g., 2,000, 2,400). Second, years divisible by 4,000 are normal years. This adjustment will maintain the calendar accurate to within one day for the next 20,000 years.
It is obvious that the calendar system had changed for many times adjusting for the certain purposes (from the king itself) and/or certain occasions, typically the reformation by Pope Gregory XIII. What remains from this history is a very silly thing for me. Nowadays, when people are too busy with the New Year celebration, only few of them realized that the history is far from the originality. (But who cares? As long as I enjoy the party and have a fun with my friends, it’s okay. Now shut your mouth up and let’s join us or you stay here and seek for the truth that you will never get! Devil article: 1).
New Year Celebration for Muslim
It is an absurd to see many Muslim people celebrate New Year rather than Islamic New Year in which many Ulama assumed such celebration is a Kuffaar and should completely be avoided. Our prophet Muhammad (please be upon him) said:
“He who imitates a people is one of them.”
Additionally, The Messenger also said:
“Really you guys going to follow the way the people before you, inch by inch, cubit by cubit, even until the extent when they enter the burrow of a dhabb (a type of lizards living in the desert), you undoubtedly will follow them”.
We (Muhammad’s close friends) said: “O Messenger of Allah, whether they were Jews and Nashara (Christian)?
He (Muhammad) replies: “Who else, except them?” (Al Bukhari-Muslim)
(Oh… come on… Why you people always debate and confront about this. Don’t you wish for peacefulness and happiness ever after across the differences between us? Live is only once then enjoy your life. So, let’s start the party tonight. Devil article: 2)